From the fifth century onwards, Germanic tribes crossed the North Sea to settle in Kent. Dover, then known as DOFRAS, became a major settlement in the new Kingdom of Kent.
Many important Saxon discoveries have been made in the Dover area, not least the Anglo-Saxon cemetery at Buckland found in 1951 during the building of a housing estate. 170 graves were found on the site, many containing weapons, jewellery and everyday objects such as combs and pottery. Another 244 graves were found adjacent in 1994, making Buckland one of the largest Anglo-Saxon cemeteries in Britain. Several Saxon timber buildings have also been found in the centre of Dover, and the church within the castle walls, St. Mary in Castro dates from the Saxon period.
By the middle of the 10th century, the town was prosperous and well-organised with its own mint and established cross channel trading links
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